Organic agriculture in smallholder sub-Saharan African farming areas faces a lot of challenges that are different from those experienced in other regions of the world. While local farmers use organic resources in some way, the adoption of organic agriculture as a means of commercial production is lagging. Peer-reviewed literature on organic agriculture in Zimbabwe and most of Africa is limited. This review identifies regional situational differences in the farming environment in sub-Sahara Africa and Zimbabwe and discusses the opportunities and challenges peculiar to smallholder organic agriculture farmers. Results show that organic agriculture in Zimbabwean smallholder farming areas is mainly promoted by non-governmental organisations and supporting public policy is lacking. Local markets for organic produce are not well developed and an opportunity exists to develop local markets through supportive public policies, private sector engagement and further training and farmer support. While most soils present challenges to crop production due to nutrient deficiencies, yield increases are possible with organic management and research on mixing/fortifying organic amendments is needed.